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C

caliph

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a successor of the Prophet Muhammad and head of the Islamic community; traditionally always male

calligraphy

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the art of fine handwriting

calyces

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Plural of calyx.

calyx

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A group of outer leaves that surround the unopened bud of a flower.

camomile

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An aromatic perennial herb native to the Mediterranean region, having feathery foliage and flower heads with white rays and yellow centers.

camphor

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Camphor is an aromatic crystalline compound, obtained naturally from the wood or leaves of the camphor tree. It is used in medicine chiefly in external preparations to relieve mild pain and itching.

canopic jar

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A canopic jar is a funerary jar containing human organs extracted during the process of mummification; the stoppers of the jars took the shape of the heads of the four sons of the god Horus, who are the patrons of the liver, lungs, stomach and intestine.

caravansary

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A caravansary is a warehouse for the storage of goods with rooms above for merchants to rent. Caravansaries are also called funduqs or khans.

cardamon

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A cardamon is an Indian herb with rhizomes that has fruits, resembling capsules. These fruits have aromatic seeds that are used as spices or condiments.

carnelian

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A pale to deep red or reddish-brown variety of clear chalcedony, used in jewelry.

cartonnage

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linen or papyrus held together by glue and molded into coffins and funeral masks.

cartouche

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an elliptical symbol encircling the inscribed birth and coronation names of the king

cataract

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A cataract is a rapids or waterfall in a river. The first Nile cataract was Egypt's southern border in ancient times.

cavetto cornice

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an architectural concave element stylized after palm fronds

cella

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the inner room of a temple, usually where the statue of a god was placed

cenotaph

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a symbolic tomb erected in honor of a dead person whose remains lie elsewhere

censer

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a vessel in which incense is burned

ceremonial beard

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a short transversely striped, squared-off, wedge-shaped beard that was a symbol of royal dignity

chanteuse

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a female singer

chased

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the ornamented surface of a metal that has been decorated by indenting and so raising the design, without cutting into it

chiton

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a knee-length garment worn by men and women of ancient Greece

chlamys

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a short oblong cloak worn by young men of ancient Greece

cinnamon

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Cinnamon is the dried aromatic inner bark of certain tropical Asian trees. The bark is often ground and used as a spice.

Circassian

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Mamluk rulers of Egypt from AD 1382-1517 who originated in an area of modern southwest Russia called Circassia in former times

citadel

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a fortress in a commanding position in or near a city

cloisonné

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decorative enamelwork using applied gold threads and tiny beads

Codex

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a manuscript volume, especially of a classic work or of the Scriptures

Codices

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plural of codex, a manuscript volume, especially of a classic work or of the Scriptures

coffer

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a chest for money or valuables; also, an ornamental recess in a ceiling

colonnade

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a series of columns placed at regular intervals and often supporting a roof

colonnette

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a small, thin column used for architectural decoration or to support an arch

Coptic

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It is a name for Egyptians of the Christian faith and their Church. It is also the name for the last form of the ancient Egyptian language, which was written with mostly Greek letters. The Coptic language survives only as a liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

corbel

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a bracket of stone, wood, brick, or metal projecting from the face of a wall and used to support a cornice or arch

cornice

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horizontal molded projection that crowns a building or wall

cornucopia

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a goat's horn overflowing with fruit, flowers, and grain, signifying prosperity; also called Horn of Plenty

corona

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halo or faintly colored luminous ring

Cretan

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an adjective referring to the island of Crete and its culture

croushing

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Lying down with the head raised.

cruciform

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in the shape of a cross

cuirass

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a piece of armor for protecting the chest and back

cuneiform

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An ancient method of writing in Mesopotamia whereby characters are formed by the arrangement of small wedge-shaped elements

cyathus

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a type of ladle or cup used to serve wine in ancient Greece

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